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Study,Dec/21:Antibiotics & the Nervous System--Neurotoxicity vs. Neuroprotection


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The full title of this Polish study is "Antibiotics and the Nervous System-Which Face of Antibiotic Therapy Is Real, Dr. Jekyll (Neurotoxicity) or Mr. Hyde (Neuroprotection)?"






Antibiotics as antibacterial drugs have saved many lives, but have also become a victim of their own success. Their widespread abuse reduces their anti-infective effectiveness and causes the development of bacterial resistance. Moreover, irrational antibiotic therapy contributes to gastrointestinal dysbiosis, that increases the risk of the development of many diseases, including neurological and psychiatric. One of the potential options for restoring homeostasis is the use of oral antibiotics that are poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., rifaximin alfa). Thus, antibiotic therapy may exert neurological or psychiatric adverse drug reactions which are often considered to be overlooked and undervalued issues. Drug-induced neurotoxicity is mostly observed after beta-lactams and quinolones. Penicillin may produce a wide range of neurological dysfunctions, including encephalopathy, behavioral changes, myoclonus or seizures. Their pathomechanism results from the disturbances of gamma-aminobutyric acid-GABA transmission (due to the molecular similarities between the structure of the β-lactam ring and GABA molecule) and impairment of the functioning of benzodiazepine receptors (BZD). However, on the other hand, antibiotics have also been studied for their neuroprotective properties in the treatment of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory processes (e.g., Alzheimer's or Parkinson's diseases). Antibiotics may, therefore, become promising elements of multi-targeted therapy for these entities.


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